Kulbhushan Jadhav, 49, was arrested by Pakistan in March 2016 and accused of “espionage”, a charge India has rubbished.
A year later, Mr Jadhav was sentenced to death by a Pakistani military court.
A month after the former officer’s death sentence, India took Pakistan to the world court, and the execution was stayed in May 2017.
Pakistan claims that its security forces had arrested Mr Jadhav from Balochistan province on March 3, 2016, after he entered the country from Iran.
India asserted that he was kidnapped from Iran, where he had business interests after retiring from the Navy.
In ICJ hearings, India accused Pakistan of denying consular access to Mr Jadhav in violation of the Vienna Convention.
Pakistan countered that Mr Jadhav had been found guilty of “spying and terrorism”.
The ICJ had held a four-day public hearing in the high-profile case in February, which coincided with heightened tensions between India and Pakistan over the death of 40 CRPF soldiers in the Pulwama terror attack.
India accused Pakistan of using Mr Jadhav as a “pawn” to divert attention from its own conduct – state sponsorship of terrorism.
India also accused Pakistan of harassing Mr Jadhav’s wife and mother during a meeting held on December 25, 2017 in Islamabad. The retired Navy officer had simply “parroted Pakistani propaganda” and his conversation with his family was “tutored and designed to perpetuate the false narrative of his alleged activities in Pakistan,” India had said.